For flow circulation and sediment transport, BMT uses TUFLOW FV as well as DELFT3D to simulate tides, currents and sediment transport. The flow models also incorporate the influence of waves in locations where sediment transport is affected by waves and currents. The flow circulation based models provide operational estimates of water levels and currents for ship navigation and mooring analysis models as well as serving as the primary inputs for pollutant transport models.

The sediment transport models are used to predict siltation in navigation channels and berths and thus maintenance dredging costs. Larger scale flow models are also used to determine storm surges due to tropical storms and tsunamis. Probability analysis is performed on all the environmental forces, i.e. waves, currents, storm surges to predict conditions for the 1 in 50, 1 in 100 or 1 in 250 year events for design.

For confirmation of the ease and safety of navigation and berthing, BMT uses REMBRANDT, described elsewhere in this issue of FOCUS.

Berthing forces and operating limits for vessels at berth are established by utilising OPTIMOOR, software widely accepted by the industry for mooring analysis design.

Port jetty with cranes on it for unloading ship cargo